Aquaporin 4 Multiple Sclerosis
Antibodies to Aquaporin 4 (NMO) from serum
It is recommended that this test be requested only by a specialist. Blood Values Test cannot support this test for individuals.
Blood test in case of suspicion of:
1) neuromyelitis optica (NMO, opticospinal encephalomyelitis, Devic's syndrome). LETM (longitudinally prolonged myelitis transversa). NMO(SD) is not MS. However, like MS, it is an autoimmune disease in which inflammation occurs in the central nervous system.
NMO(SD) stands for Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder. In the past, NMO(SD) was also called Devic's Disease or Syndrome, after its discoverer Eugene Devic.
Spectrum Disorder (SD) means that spinal cord and optic nerve inflammation do not have to occur simultaneously to be diagnosed with NMO(SD). Often the patient has only optic nerve inflammation and antibody in the body, but not spinal cord inflammation or vice versa. Because it is a rare disease, it is quite difficult for general practitioners and specialists to diagnose and months to years may pass before a definitive diagnosis is made.
NMO(SD) used to be considered a variant of MS because it can be very similar. Many symptoms are very similar to those in Relapsing-Remitting (RR)MS: seizure-like gait problems, sensory disturbances, bladder problems, cognitive problems, and great fatigue. The cause, namely damage to the myelin (the protective layer of the nerves), is also the same. However, it was striking that the course of the symptoms was often very different. Without treatment there is often little or no recovery and much residual damage, very different from most MS patients.
The antibodies that are most common in NMO(SD) are aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies. Patients with these antibodies may have a more severe course of the disease with repeated attacks (80-90% without treatment). They also tend to have more seizures and residual damage.
A smaller proportion of patients have myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies in the blood. Often these have one-time failure of functions of the body, although repeated attacks (30-40% without treatment) are also possible.
And there is a group of patients in whom both antibodies are not present in the blood. Of these, it is still unknown whether they may have other as yet unknown antibodies in their blood.
Devic disease involves many systemic disorders, based on anecdotal evidence of some Devic patients with multiple disorders. These disorders include: collagen vascular disease, autoantibody syndrome, infections with varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, exposure to Clioquinol and antituberculosis drugs.
2) Differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. A differential diagnosis, or differential diagnosis, is part of the diagnostic strategy and involves a listing of possible conditions that a given patient could be suffering from, given the symptoms and signs known at the time.