Zika Virus IgM IgG antibodies
Blood test by IgM antibodies to Zika Virus (Zika-Virus-Ak (IgM) from serum). This test measures whether IgM antibodies are produced by the immune system when a person has been exposed to the virus.
For those infectious diseases that require notification, we are required to report a positive result to your local GGD(more information).
IgM antibodies appear in the blood 4 to 5 days after the onset of the disease and last approximately 12 weeks. Performing the test outside this window can produce false-negative results. IgM antibody tests can also be positive if a person has been infected with a similar virus, such as dengue (called cross-reactivity).
The Zika virus is spread by the yellow fever mosquito or dengue mosquito. This mosquito does not occur naturally in the Netherlands. The disease (zika fever) is usually quite mild. Most people don't get any symptoms at all. However, it has now been scientifically proven that an infection during pregnancy can be harmful to the unborn child.
Dengue virus, or dengue fever, can also be spread by this mosquito.
Women who are pregnant or trying to have a baby are still being warned to travel to the 79 countries where Zika has spread.
This advice is based on the increased risk of microcephaly and other birth defects in babies of pregnant women infected with the Zika virus, which is spread primarily by mosquitoes. Microcephaly is a condition in which a baby is born with a small head or has a head that does not grow after birth. In line with World Health Organization advice, Sun Online has published a map showing which countries are still dangerous to travel to. The World Health Organization advises pregnant women not to travel to Zika-affected areas they have classified as Category 1 and 2. Category 1 is a country with a new introduction of the Zika virus since 2015, or where the virus has been reintroduced, with ongoing transmission.
Infection with Zika virus causes symptoms in about 1 in 5 people. Symptoms of Zika fever usually occur 3 to 12 days after a bite from an infected mosquito. Most people recover within a week without serious problems.
Symptoms that may occur are:
- Acute (moderate) fever
- Non-lethal inflammation of the eye
- Muscle and joint pain (especially of the hands and feet, sometimes joint swelling)
- Skin rash (often starting on the face and spreading over the rest of the body)
- Less common: headache, lack of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain
There is a link between abnormalities in the unborn child and infection with the zika virus during pregnancy, also called congenital Zika virus syndrome. Among other things, this describes a brain abnormality (microcephaly) in the unborn child.
Guillain-Barré syndrome also appears to be a complication of an infectious agent. Of this, however, it is still unknown how often it occurs after a zika virus infection, but it seems to be quite rare.
Zika virus can very occasionally be transmitted through sexual contact. This is because the virus is found in semen. However, the chance of becoming infected with the zika virus in this way is estimated to be very small. To prevent infection, men who have been to countries where the zika virus occurs are advised to use a condom for two months. Especially with a pregnant woman.
The duty to report can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The obligation to report is regulated in the Public Health Act (more information).
Method: ELISA (EIA)
This test is appropriate for people who have returned from endemic areas for more than 1 week. Clear cross-reactivity to be expected with dengue-ELISA.