Q fever Coxiella Burneti Chronic
This test consists of Q fever Phase 1 IgG and Q fever Phase 2 igM (Coxiella burneti Phase 1 IgG and Phase 2 IgM) from serum.
This test is used when there is a suspicion of an old infection that has become chronic.
For those infectious diseases that require notification, we are obliged to report a positive result to your local GGD (more information).
Q fever is a disease transmitted from animals to humans by Coxiella burnetii, a highly contagious bacterium.
How does the infection arise?
The main source of infection is cattle, sheep and goats. Pets (dogs and cats) and birds can also be a source of infection. Usually the animals themselves do not show any symptoms, but they can abort. The bacteria are then excreted in the abortion material (aborted foetus, amniotic membranes and amniotic fluid), in milk, saliva, tear fluid and manure. The bacteria can survive well outside the animal, so animal products can remain a source of contamination for a long time.
Infection occurs mainly through the respiratory tract by inhaling contaminated dust from stables, pastures, raw wool, hides, clothing, etc. Ticks can cause transmission from animal to animal, and sometimes transmission to humans. Infection directly from human to human does not occur.
In addition, contamination is possible through consumption of contaminated raw milk (products) or inadequately heated meat. There have also been cases of mothers infecting newborn children through the placenta and/or breast milk.
In more than 50% of cases, the disease progresses without obvious symptoms or complaints.
Usually, complaints begin 2 to 3 weeks after infection.
Possible symptoms are:
- Fever (39-40°)
- severe headache (frontal or retro-orbital)
- neck stiffness
- General malaise, nausea and/or vomiting
- muscle pain
- low heart rate
- decreased appetite, sometimes leading to acute weight loss (especially if the disease lasts longer than 2 weeks).
- Sometimes the disease is accompanied by pneumonia, characterized by a dry cough and chest pain.
- Another possible complication is a mild form of inflammation of the liver (hepatitis).
In about 5% of infected patients, mainly people with vascular abnormalities, immunodeficiencies or pregnant people, Q fever develops into a chronic disease that often presents as endocarditis (inflammation of the heart wall). Symptoms of this can last up to 10 years. In the Netherlands, 40% of known cases required hospitalization.
Q fever is quite rare. In the Netherlands, the number of human infections is estimated at about 20 per year. Perhaps this is an underestimate because the disease often progresses without symptoms.
Most patients recover fully after several weeks to months without treatment.
Antibiotics will, however, shorten the duration of the disease. Doxycycline is the preferred treatment in acute Q fever. Treatment is most effective when started within the first 3 days of illness.
Explanation Microbiological diagnosis Q fever C. Burnetii
Antibodies to C. burnetii develop from approximately the 10th-14th from the date of the first day of illness.
in which, as a rule, successively:
Phase II-IgM ELISA can be used as a screening method for acute Q feverThen
the phase I-IgM and phase I-IgG antibodies appear.
The phase I antibodies do not reach their highest value until 4 months after infection.
IgM antibodies can remain detectable for a long time (up to more than 6 months)
After that, the phase I igG is detectable in an infection.
This screening method can be used for chronic Q fever.
If you also want to demonstrate more recent infections, you can order this test as well.