Artificial Grass PAHs in Urine
Hydroxypyrene from urine (30 ml)
Metabolites are eliminated from the body through the urine. By measuring one of these substances - namely hydroxy-pyrene - in urine, you get an idea of the exposure to PAHs.
Infill material is used on artificial turf fields. Rubber granules can be used as an infill material. The rubber granules ensure that the artificial turf field gets the same properties as a regular grass field, so the ball does not roll too fast and does not bounce too high. In addition, the artificial turf becomes more suitable for sliding.
The RIVM study shows that rubber crumb contains many different substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, plasticizers (phthalates) and bisphenol A (BPA).
PAHs are carcinogenic substances that can also be formed when you let food burn. This can happen, for example, when barbecuing. You can prevent the formation of PAHs yourself by making sure that no black edges or black crusts are formed when preparing food.
PAHs can also enter the environment through fires in nature or industry. It has been established how much is allowed to be present in food at most.
PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) are harmful substances that are carcinogenic.
The most common PAH is benzo(a)pyrene. PAHs are formed when organic material burns at high temperatures. Therefore, burnt products, such as meat or bread, can contain PAHs. When food is processed, such as smoked, PAHs can also enter the product through the smoke. Furthermore, PAHs are formed during volcanic eruptions and fires in nature or industry. PAHs then enter the environment.
Because most PAHs are carcinogenic, the EU has not set a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for PAHs. To ensure that the intake of PAHs remains as low as possible, the maximum amount of benzo(a)pyrene that may be present in food has been set. The Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) monitors compliance with the standards.
During roasting, frying, roasting and barbecuing, the formation of PAHs can be prevented by ensuring that no black edges or crusts develop. If any black edges or crusts do develop, cut them away.
Deep-fry fries and snacks at 175°C until the outside is golden yellow, and no longer. Sieve black particles from frying oil regularly. Replace dark or viscous oil. The oil should also be changed if it starts to smoke or foam, or if it has a strong odor or taste.