Cardiolipin antibodies SLE - screening miscarriage
Antibodies to cardiolipin screening (CARDAK from serum) is used to exclude these antibodies so that the risk of miscarriage is not increased by them.
Screening measures total antibodies, (IgG, IgM) there is no breakdown of which antibodies are present IgG or IgM
Antibodies to cardiolipin can cause blood clotting to be too active, causing unwanted blood clots to form. These clots can lead to;
- a brain thrombosis,
- heart attack,
- pulmonary embolism,
- thrombosis or
- repeated miscarriages.
Actually, the body should not make antibodies against cardiolipin
Anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of thromboses: even at a young age. Sometimes thromboses occur in vessels where thromboses normally rarely occur, such as liver or kidney vessels. Thrombosis can cause a heart attack, pulmonary embolism or cerebral infarction. Such antibodies are also sometimes found in women who have suffered multiple miscarriages. This set of symptoms is called antiphospholipid syndrome. Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease and is characterized by certain abnormal blood tests in combination with increased blood clotting, which can lead to thrombosis. In addition, patients with antiphospholipid syndrome may have a reduced platelet count and may have more frequent complications in pregnancy, such as repeated miscarriages.
APS can occur in isolation. 50% of APS patients have APS alone. About 30% of people who have systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE) also have APS.
If one has only APS, there is little chance that SLE will later develop in addition.
As with most autoimmune diseases, APS is more common in women than in men. 60% are women, 40% are men. The disease usually manifests itself between the ages of 20 and 40.
The disease is also known as Hughes syndrome. This name comes from the English physician Professor Hughes, working in the lupus clinic in London, who first described the disease. Both names sometimes get a little mixed up, however, the most common worldwide is antiphospholipid syndrome, abbreviated as APS.
Antiphospholipid syndrome as a separate entity was only recognized in 1985 and therefore not much is known about it and very little information can be found about it. Much research is still needed to better understand the disease and develop better treatments.
Circulating antibodies to phospholipids have caused much controversy in recent years because of their association with thrombotic processes, for example in lupus erythematodes disseminatus (LED). They bind to phospholipids of platelets and endothelium, causing platelet aggregation to occur when the vascular wall has reduced production of prostacyclin. Thus, increased antibody titers against cardiolipin, a mitochondrial phospholipid-containing antigen from cardiac myocytes, have been demonstrated in a large number of young patients with vascular occlusions.
Also available upon request are:
- antibodies to cardiolipin (IgA)
- antibodies to cardiolipin (IgM)