Urine analysis urine status and sediment
Urine Status: Now with free urine sediment.
This examination may be performed to check for kidney problems, urinary tract disease, or a metabolic disorder.
Urine screening consists of urine status and urine Sediment
A portion of the first morning urine is best used. In doing so, it is best to pee a little first, stop peeing for a while and only then collect the urine (this is also called mid-stream urine).
With the included vacuum system, you easily suck up the urine and put the tube in the mail.
The urine is tested for the presence of cells, protein and glucose, among other things. Many disorders can be detected at an early stage by urinalysis, because they betray themselves by substances in the urine that do not belong in it. An abnormal urine analysis usually prompts additional testing to determine the nature and severity of the underlying disease.
Urine status test results are determined colorimetrically in our laboratory by a simple color reaction. These determinations give only an indication of the examined. The presence of blood cells (erythrocytes, leucocytes), crystals and drugs, among others, influence these tests and can produce false positive and false negative results.
Specific gravity - Normal urine has a specific gravity (sg) of about 1010. If the sg is very low then the urine is highly diluted (pure water has 1000), if it is highly elevated then the urine is highly concentrated and there is a chance of dehydration.
pH Acidity - The acidity of the urine should not be lower than 4.5, a lower pH indicates too much waste For a good assessment, the urine pH should be measured at every toilet passage, a good overview can then be made of the pH value during the day and preferably over a week. The influence of nutrition and activities on the acidity can then be better assessed. When this shows that the pH remains too low it is advisable to investigate the cause.
Leucocytes - Leukocytes are white blood cells. They should not normally be found in urine. If there are white blood cells in the urine, it may indicate a bladder infection or urinary tract infection.
Bilirubin - In normal healthy urine, bilirubin should never be present. Bilirubin (bile pigment) comes primarily from the breakdown of red blood cells.
Urobilinogen - Urobilinogen originates in the intestine where it is formed from the conversion of bilirubin by the intestinal flora. It returns to the bloodstream and is filtered out by the kidneys. There are many factors that can affect the concentration such as: time, kidney function, urine pH, etc.
Protein screening - There is always a very small amount of protein present in the urine. Increased amount of protein in the urine can indicate the kidney inflammation, but also the kidney damage due to high blood pressure, diabetes or due to chronic infection.
Ketones- Acetone - Ketones are a fuel for the brain. Under normal circumstances, glucose is used as fuel for the brain, but if there is insufficient glucose available, then ketones are used as a source of energy. Possible causes for too much ketones in urine are newly developed or dysregulated diabetes, after prolonged fasting, poorly functioning adrenal gland, or rare inherited metabolic diseases.
Determination of ketones in urine may be requested to find out the cause of an acid-base disorder. Various ketones such as acetone and acetoacetate are found in the urine. They are breakdown products from fat metabolism.
Nitrite - Nitrite is a substance produced from the conversion of nitrate. Little nitrite should normally be found in the urine. If it is found in the urine, it may be a signal that there are bacteria in the urine that are facilitating this conversion. Thus, nitrite in the urine may be a signal of a bladder infection.
Glucose screening - normally there should be no sugar (glucose) in the urine. Only with high glucose levels in the blood (consistent with a diabetes mellitus) or damage to the kidney will sugar be found in the urine.
Erythrocytes/free hemoglobin - red blood cells in the urine. These are found in cases such as kidney inflammation or bleeding in the urinary tract.
Now with free urine sediment