Urine examination complementary
Supplementary examination to urine screening (WP19) consisting of:
- micro albumin in urine
- sodium in urine
- potassium in urine
- creatinine in urine (kreatinine in urine)
- urea in urine
A portion of the first morning urine is best used.
In doing so, it is best to pee a little first, stop peeing for a while and then collect the urine (this is also called midstream urine).
With the included vacuum system, you easily suck up the urine and put the tube in the mail in the included shipping material.
An important protein in the urine is albumin. If only albumin and no other proteins can be detected in the urine, this is an indication of incipient kidney damage caused by diabetes. If the body excretes 30 to 300 milligrams of albumin over 24 hours or 20 to 200 milliliters per liter of urine, this is a typical sign of kidney damage caused by diabetes or high blood pressure.
Potassium is a mineral found primarily within the body's cells. The mineral is indispensable to the human body. It is essential for the proper functioning of all cells, tissues and organs.
Potassium is involved in metabolism and various other body functions. Potassium is needed in the contraction of muscle fibers and proper conduction of nerve impulses. Together with the mineral sodium (from table salt) it plays a role in regulating blood pressure. Potassium has a protective effect against high blood pressure. Sufficient potassium intake is also associated with a reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease. In addition, potassium, together with sodium, is important for proper hydration. It further helps in the removal of waste products from the body.
Many foods contain potassium. Therefore, a healthy and varied diet provides sufficient potassium. Potassium is mainly found in fruits and vegetables (citrus fruits, melon, bananas, kiwis, plums and apricots), potatoes, meat and fish. Salmon, cod, flounder, and sardines are good sources of potassium. The mineral is also found in bread, milk, and nuts. Soy products and vegetarian burgers are also good sources of potassium.
Normally, the human body itself is able to provide the right amount of potassium. The kidneys regulate this. When there is too much potassium in the body, the kidneys drain it through the urine and you urinate it out. When there is too little potassium in the body, your body actually retains it. About 90 percent leaves the body through the urine and the remainder through the feces. Only a minute portion is sweated out. When potassium intake is reduced, the body will excrete as little potassium as possible.
Potassium deficiency occurs as a result of an imbalance between intake and excretion. Rarely does it arise from inadequate dietary intake, since potassium is found in so many foods. A deficiency therefore often occurs as a result of an increased loss of potassium. Causes that may underlie this are persistent diarrhea and/or vomiting. Potassium deficiency can also be caused by the use of laxatives or diuretics, a drug that stimulates the excretion of water by the kidneys, also known as urinary pills. Furthermore, several rare kidney and adrenal disorders can lead to low potassium levels. Finally, it should be noted that potassium absorption is negatively affected by coffee, alcohol, processed sugar, a low-carbohydrate diet and excessive salt consumption.
The signs and symptoms of potassium deficiency are:
- reduced appetite
- muscle weakness or cramps
- listlessness, fatigue
- (sometimes, in severe cases) irregular heartbeat or arrhythmia
- A lowered blood potassium level is also known as hypokalemia
Potassium is excreted through the kidneys in excess. When kidney function is deficient, a potassium excess can occur. Also, with certain medications for blood pressure (certain diuretics and/or ACE inhibitors), potassium levels in the blood can become too high. Excess potassium can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Excessive blood potassium levels are also known as hyperkalemia. Be careful when taking potassium supplements. An overdose can cause nausea, diarrhea and severe cardiac arrhythmia, in the most serious case resulting in sudden death.
Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA)
The Health Council of the Netherlands has not drawn up recommendations for potassium. In Europe there are recommendations of about 3.1 to 3.5 grams of potassium per day for adults.
Potassium is a mineral that occurs in fruits and vegetables. Your body needs potassium for proper functioning of the muscles and nervous system. Potassium also plays a role in the contraction of muscles and the conduction of nerve impulses. Furthermore, potassium is beneficial for blood pressure. If you are taking blood pressure medications or urinary tablets, your body may need additional minerals, including potassium.
The test measures the amount of creatinine in urine. Creatinine is a waste produced by the breakdown of creatine in the muscles. Creatinine plays a role in the production of energy needed for muscle function. The decomposition product kreatinine is removed from the body through urine. To do this, kreatinine must be removed from the blood by the kidneys. Blood levels of creatinine are therefore a good measure of kidney function.
The amount of kreatinine produced by the body depends on body height and muscle mass. As a result, men tend to have higher blood creatinine concentrations than women and children. Creatinine levels can be elevated due to a variety of causes:
- an inflammation in the kidney (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis) due to a bacterial infection.
- damage to kidney cells by poisoning (intake of a harmful substance) or as a side effect of a medicine.
- an autoimmune disease resulting from processes that interfere with the elimination of urine: prostate disease, kidney stones.
- Decreased blood flow to the kidney tissue example due to shock, dehydration, heart failure, vascular disease and complications of diabetes.
A temporary increase occurs with muscle damage, e.g. from trauma.
A lowered value is usually no reason for concern. All situations in which muscle mass decreases (e.g. bedridden, amputation of an arm or leg, old age) are accompanied by a decrease in the creatinine concentration. A slight lowering of the creatinine concentration may occur during pregnancy.
Urea is a substance produced in the liver by the combustion of proteins. When proteins are burned, nitrogen is released in the form of urea. It is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, some of it is then reabsorbed into the body the rest ends up in the urine.
An elevated urea can have several causes:
- Prerenal: An increased breakdown of protein in the liver or decreased blood flow to the kidney, the kidney itself is functioning well.
- Renal: Damage to the kidney.
- Postrenal: Obstruction of the urinary tract so that more urea can be reabsorbed by the kidney. This can be seen in swelling of the prostate or in kidney stones.
It is measured in the blood and urine to monitor kidney function.