TSH Receptor Axis Graves' disease thyroid gland
TSH receptor antibodies: Here, TSH-R a.s. (also called ThyrStimIg, TSI Thyreoid stim. IgG (TSI) ,TSH recept. al.) tested TRAK from serum.
The test determines the presence of and TSH receptor antibodies to thyroid cells. Many thyroid diseases are caused by autoantibodies. These occur when the immune system mistakenly considers (components of) thyroid cells to be "foreign" (not native to the body) and creates antibodies to destroy these cells. They are called autoantibodies because the immune system acts against thyroid cells of its own. They can cause a variety of thyroid abnormalities, such as thyroiditis, damage to thyroid tissue and/or disruption of thyroid function.
TSH receptor antibodies can have either a stimulatory or an inhibitory effect on the thyroid, but the stimulatory effect is by far the most common.
With a thyroid that works too fast and the presence of and TSH receptor antibodies, these antibodies bind to the thyroid gland and cause excessive levels and FT4 in the blood. Symptoms that result include: palpitations, shortness of breath on exertion, heat discomfort, excessive sweating, nervousness and weight loss.
When the thyroid gland is working too slowly, anti-TPO and antibodies are often found and it is called Hashimoto's disease.
Symptoms of a slow-acting thyroid gland include:
- weight gain
- dry skin
- hair loss
- lowering of the voice and constipation
Table: Hormone and autoantibody characteristics in diagnosis of thyroid autoimmunity *.
|Graves' disease||Hashimoto's disease|
|TSH receptor antibodies|
|80-100%||TSH receptor antibodies|
|TPO autoantibodies||45-80%||TPO autoantibodies (hightiter)||95%|
|Tg autoantibodies||12-30%||Tg autoantibodies (high titer)||50-60%|
% within the patient population