Diabetes glucose (fasting) and HbA1c
The following tests are performed:
- glucose (fasting)
The glucose test measures the amount of glucose in blood. Glucose is chemically a simple, small sugar molecule. Food contains long chains of sugar molecules (carbohydrates) that are broken down into several small sugars, including glucose. It is absorbed into the blood through the wall of the small intestine.
Most body cells use glucose as a source of energy. After eating, the amount of glucose in the blood rises due to the large supply. Under the influence of insulin (a hormone from the pancreas), glucose is carried to the body cells where it is used for energy production or stored as a reserve fuel.
If the body needs a lot of energy, the stored fuel is called upon. This requires glucagon, another hormone from the pancreas that causes glucose to be released from storage again, raising blood sugar. In a healthy body, insulin and glucagon keep glucose levels in the blood well under control. In people with diabetes mellitus, the glucose balance is disturbed so that the blood sugar level is too high. This can lead to serious damage to the kidneys, heart, eyes, blood vessels and nerves.
The test does not need to be done sober, if one does not suffer from elevated glucose the result is good even if you are not sober. If there is an indication of high sugar or previous tests indicated too high glucose levels, it is better to go to the clinic sober . Glucose is not a different test, but because of the sampling time, which you note on the lab form, the result can be interpreted as glucose sober.
This test sees what has been going on with your sugar levels over the past few months.
Glucose circulating in the blood tends to bind spontaneously to hemoglobin, the oxygen transport protein in red blood cells. Once glucose is bound it does not let go. This bond is called hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The degree of glucose binding depends on the amount of glucose in the blood. HbA1c provides a more reliable blood glucose picture than a glucose measurement because HbA1c levels are not affected by current changes in diet or medication. The lifespan of red blood cells (and therefore of hemoglobin) is 2 to 3 months, so the HbA1c value gives an impression of the average glucose value over the last few months.
For the glucose measurement you need to be sober for this examination, so you can better compare the values of previous glucose examinations. Indicate on the lab form whether you were sober when you took your blood sample, because different reference values apply for glucose that is not sober.
If your blood values are good, they will also be good when you are not sober. However, if you want to be on the safe side for an optimal result with regard to glucose, we have the following dietary advice for you:
From the evening before your appointment, do not consume any coffee or dairy products (such as milk, buttermilk or yoghurt) after 23:00 hours. No fried goods and no alcoholic beverages. For breakfast and/or lunch have a maximum of 2 slices of wholemeal bread spread with, for example, low-fat meat products, without butter. Drink water or tea without milk or sugar. Do not eat sweets, fruit or dairy products.
In case of abnormal results, the examination can be repeated sober, to see if it is okay then.
If you suspect you have diabetes, it is best to follow this guideline:
Sober means that you may not eat, drink or smoke after 20:00 hours. A little water is allowed.